Mbiri ya Blackjack

Monga masewera aliwonse a kasino, omutsatira ndendende blackjack ndizovuta kunena. Palibe umboni wodalirika wotsimikizira momwe masewerawa adasinthira, pomwe akatswiri sawona mbiri ya blackjack diso ndi diso.

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Chifukwa choti masewerawa adatchedwa 21 asadasinthidwe dzina Blackjack, pali malingaliro ambiri kuti zasintha kuchokera pamasewera achi France Vingt-et-un.

Mbiri Yomwe Blackjack ku France?

Vingt-et-un (French for 21) anali masewera achi French (mwina Spain) otchulidwa m'malemba ambiri azakale. Masewerawa atha kusintha kuchokera kuzosavuta zina zotchedwa Quinze (French for 15) kapena masewera achi Italiya Sette e Mezzo (seveni ndi theka).

Chofunika kwambiri, Vingt-et-un adatchulidwa m'buku la Miguel de Cervantes (la mbiri ya Don Quixote) Novelas Ejemplares, pomwe anthu awiriwa anali otchova njuga Ndipo amabera poyeserera kutchovera juga ku Seville. Rinconete ndi Cortadillo anali kusewera masewera otchedwa veintiuna (Spanish kwa 21), pomwe cholinga chachikulu chinali kufikira zaka 21. Bukuli lidanenanso kuti ace ndiwofunika 1 kapena 11, ndichifukwa chake olemba mbiri ambiri amawona veintiuna kukhala blackjackwotsogola mwauzimu.

Vingt-et-un
Vingt-et-un, wodziwika bwino ngati 21

Akatswiri ena amaganiza kuti zimachokera pamasewera amakhadi aku France Chemin de Fer (French Ferme) yomwe inali yotchuka m'makasino aku France mzaka za XVIII. Ena amakhulupirira zimenezo blackjack adachokera ku Roma wakale komwe Aroma adasewera masewera ofanana ndi matabwa. Aroma anali odziwika kutchova juga, koma chifukwa chosowa umboni wochokera nthawi imeneyo, chiphunzitsochi sichingatsimikizidwe.

Kukula Kwachilendo kwa Vingt-Et-Un

Chiyambireni makasitasi aku France mzaka za m'ma 1700, Vingt-et-un adadziwika kwambiri, mwina chifukwa chosiyana ndi roulette, imadalira luso m'malo mwa mwayi.

Izi zidalola osewera aluso kukhala pamatebulo ndikupambana ndalama, nthawi zambiri kumamenya kasino. Mu kanthawi kochepa chabe, matebulo a Vingt-et-un ku France adasefukira ndi osewera omwe samakonda chilichonse kuposa kungosewera pamanja tsiku limodzi kapena awiri tsiku lililonse.

Poyambirira, osewera anali ndi mwayi wosankha Hit kapena Stand zomwe zimawapatsa kumvetsetsa. Atalamulira ku Europe kwazaka zambiri, masewera atsopanowa adapita ku America m'ma 1800. Masewera oyamba ovomerezeka ku America adapezeka koyambirira kwa zaka za m'ma XIX ku New Orleans, ndipo kuchokera pamenepo, 21 idapezeka m'dziko lonselo.

Vingt-et-un inali yotchuka ku America ngakhale asanaloleredwe koyamba kasino masewera adafika pamalowa mu 1820. Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1800, Eleanore Dumont adasungitsa ndalama ndipo adapereka 21 kwa aliyense amene akufuna ku Nevada City. Anali waluso pamasewerawa koma adasewera osewera angapo komanso obera. Popeza masewerawa sanali ovomerezeka, panalibe ndalama zambiri zoti apangidwe.

Zaka zopitilira zana, ma kasino m'dziko lonselo adayamba kupereka ndalama zolipirira hands ndi ace wa zokumbira ndi jack wakuda - kutchuka kotereku kudatchedwa blackjack popita nthawi, dzinalo lidapezekanso, m'malo mwa 21.

Ma Casinos Otetezeka Paintaneti Malinga ndi OnlineGambling24.com:

Kutchuka Kukula ndi Kuwerengera Khadi

Blackjack idayamba kugunda kuyambira pomwe idaloledwa mwalamulo ku Nevada mu 1931. Ndi kukulitsa kuchuluka kwa kasino masewera ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa Blackjack, anthu ambiri adayendera makasino. Kutsegula roleti osewera adasintha njira ndikuyesa mwayi wawo pa Blackjack. Zachidziwikire, momwe zidakhalira zalamulo, panali kufunika kokhazikitsa malamulo ndi miyezo yomwe ingateteze osewera ndi makasino onse. Popeza idalira luso osati mwayi, osewera akhala akuyesera kupeza njira zosiyanasiyana zomenyera kasino. Adayesa machitidwe ochulukirapo kapena ochepa omwe adabweretsa kubadwa kwa makhadi mzaka za 1960.

Kuwerengera makhadi kusanatenge makasino mwadzidzidzi mzaka za m'ma 60, panali ambiri blackjack osewera omwe adaletsedwa kumakasino ambiri chifukwa amapeza zigoli zazikulu nthawi iliyonse akakhala patebulo.

Jess Marcum ndi okwera pamahatchi anayi (Cantey, Maisel, McDermott, ndi Baldwin) adathetsa ma kasino ambiri ndi maluso awo, omalizawa adalemba buku mu 1957 lotchedwa Playing Blackjack Kupambana. Uku kunali kuzindikira koyamba kwa anthu padziko lonse lapansi kuwerengera makhadi komwe posachedwa kudzakhala kovuta.

Mbiri ya blackjack
Chakale blackjack gome

Mu 1962, bambo wa makadi owerengera a Edward Thorpe adafalitsa buku la Beat the Dealer, lomwe limawonekerabe kuti Holy Grail yamakalata. Thorpe anali katswiri wamasamu yemwe adapanga njira yotchedwa 'ten-count system' pogwiritsa ntchito makompyuta oyambilira kuti azitsata makadi patebulo ndikupeza mwayi wopitilira kasino.

Lingaliro lake linatsimikizira kugwira ntchito bwino pakuchita. Makinawa amafunikira pang'ono masewera olimbitsa thupi - osewera amayenera kukumbukira manambala awiri (16 ndi 36) omwe amayimira makumi ndi makhadi ena padoko. Pomwe makhadiwo amatuluka, osewera amayenera kugawa makhadi ena 'otsala' powerengera ma 10s, omwe amadziwikanso kuti 'Thorp's Ratio' kapena mwayi wa wosewerayo.

Pakadali pano, osewera adakweza ma beti awo ndipo nthawi zambiri amapambana kwambiri. Izi zidabwerera m'masiku, komabe, liti blackjack matebulo amagwiritsa ntchito sitimayo imodzi. Pofuna kuti zinthu zizivuta pamakina owerengera makhadi, ma kasino masiku ano amagwiritsa ntchito mapikidwe a 6-8, chifukwa chake dongosolo la Thorp lingakhale lovuta kugwiritsa ntchito. Komabe, idakhazikitsa maziko owerengera makhadi amakono.

Kuwerengera Khadi Pamoto

Buku la Thorp litatuluka, makasino anali kuthamanga mwamantha. Makadi owerengera makhadi anali patebulo lililonse, chifukwa chake makaseti adayamba kusintha, ndikupangira ma tebulo ambiri. Patapita kanthawi, adazindikira kuti kuwerengetsa kwamakhadi kumawabweretsa makasitomala ambiri, zomwe zidakweza phindu lawo.

Mu 1966, buku lachiwiri lokonzedwanso la Beat the Dealer lokhala ndi makina ochepetsa pang'ono lidagunda mashelufu, ndikupangitsa m'badwo watsopano wamakalata. Izi zidakopa chidwi cha eni payekha Robert Griffin, yemwe adapeza njira yodziwira makhadi omwe akuwakayikira ndikugulitsa mndandandawo mu fomu yosinthira yomwe yasinthidwa ku kasino iliyonse. Ma Casinos ndi Griffin adagwira ntchito limodzi kuti aziwerengera makhadi, koma zotsatira zake zidali zosakanikirana.

Kuwerengera Khadi Magulu

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1970, Al Francesco yemwe anali mnzake wamakhadi adatenga zinthu pochita masewera pomwe mchimwene wake, yemwe amasewera pa blackjack tebulo, adayika kubetcha kwakukulu. Francesco adakhala wosewera woyamba kuwerengera makhadi ndipo posakhalitsa adaphunzitsa ena kuti aziwerengera patebulo ndikumulowetsa.

Izi zidapangitsa kuti pakhale magulu ambiri odziwika bwino amakhadi monga MIT gulu, lomwe nthano yawo idakwaniritsidwa mu kanema 21 kutengera buku lonena za blackjack zopulumuka zotchedwa Kubweretsa Nyumba.

Kuwerengera makhadi ndi wamoyo komanso akupuma, pomwe osewera masauzande ambiri akuwagwiritsabe ntchito kuti apindule nawo. Zachidziwikire, chitetezo pamakasino chakhazikitsa makina apamwamba kwambiri omwe amatha kuwona mosavuta zowerengera makhadi, kotero kumenya masewerawa sikunakhale kosavuta. Komabe, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa makasino okonzedwa ndi intaneti komanso malo ochezera a pa intaneti, makhadi amawerengera angapeze 'wovulalayo' watsopano pomwe kasino yawaletsa.

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